This 24 page white paper dated 1 October 2012 describes and evaluates some of the Co-Traveller tools the NSA and partner agencies uses to analyse phone location data: see the Washington Post article New documents show how the NSA infers relationships based on mobile location data, 10 December 2013.
This excerpt from an NSA training manual shows the use of TAPERLAY and CHALKFUN tools. The former looks up the provider and country where a phone was first activated and the latter searches the FASCIA database to find a mobile phone’s past or current location: see the Washington Post article NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show, 4 December 2013.
These two slides show the extent and types of information recorded in the NSA’s DNR (phone record) database. Selectors specified include Location Area Code (LAC), Cell Tower ID (CellID), Visitor Location Register (VLR), handset serial number (IMEI) and full phone number (MSISDN): see the Washington Post article NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show, 4 December 2013.